somerset house history

Au XVIIIe siècle, Old Somerset House a été progressivement abandonné par la Couronne. [33], The Geological Society was also accommodated in the Somerset House from 1828,[34] as was the Royal Astronomical Society from 1834. Pennard House has been in the same family since it was built in the 17th century and has always been a busy home, welcoming back generations of friends and guests over the years. The Act provided for the Duchy Office to move to new, purpose-built premises in Pimlico: now known as 10 Buckingham Gate, the building still serves as head office for the Duchy. As early as 1795 the Exchequer was requesting that more space be made available; Sir John Soane was engaged to redesign their offices, and as part of the scheme the Duchy was relocated to another part of the East Wing, prompting complaints from its officers. [47], From 1859 until 1998, the Principal Registry of the Court of Probate (latterly the Principal Probate Registry of the Family Division) was based in Somerset House, prior to its move to First Avenue House, High Holborn. Edmund Burke was the leading proponent of the scheme for a "national building", and in 1775 Parliament passed an act for the purpose of, inter alia, "erecting and establishing Publick Offices in Somerset House, and for embanking Parts of the River Thames lying within the bounds of the Manor of Savoy". Dillington House is a residential adult education college near Ilminster in the parish of Whitelackington, Somerset, England.The present house, which dates from the 16th century, is owned by Lord Cameron of Dillington and operated by Somerset County Council.There has been a house on the site since before the Norman Conquest, probably taking advantage of the nearby chalybeate spring nearby. [42], Somerset House continued in use by the Inland Revenue throughout the 20th century. [83][84] Exterior shots of Somerset House were used in the 1999 Tim Burton horror film Sleepy Hollow, starring Johnny Depp, and the 2006 film Flyboys. find out more. Norton House was a mansion in Midsomer Norton, Somerset.It was built around 1789 by the Savage family, investors in mines in the Somerset Coalfield.It was demolished in 1937-8 to make way for housing but several features from the house and its estate survive to this day. Somerset House est un grand bâtiment néoclassique situé directement à l'est de Waterloo Bridge dans le centre de Londres. Dodge. La dernière modification de cette page a été faite le 10 décembre 2020 à 12:33. It was further extended with Victorian outer wings to the east and west in 1831 and 1856 respectively. [27], In addition to applying a rich scheme of architectural decoration, Chambers enhanced the exterior of Somerset House with a multiplicity of sculptures and other visual embellishments. He spent the last two decades of his life, beginning in 1775, in several phases of building at the present Somerset House. Looking ahead. Victoria Embankment entrance. [40] The Tax Office administered and collected various taxes, including income tax (first levied in 1799). Bath Archives; Somerset Archives; BMDs & Parish Records. [2][3] Somerset House stood directly on the River Thames until the Victoria Embankment was built in the late 1860s.[4]. [65], Somerset House had its share of trials and tribulations during the London blitz in the Second World War. [19] During her time it received a certain notoriety as being, in the popular mind, a hot-bed of Catholic conspiracy. [49], During the 19th century the North Wing contained, in addition, the offices of the Poor Law Commissioners (1834–47)[58] and the Tithe Commissioners (1836–51),[59] who also acted as the Copyhold Commissioners. The Lottery Office, established in 1779, was also abolished in 1831 and its residual business likewise passed to the Stamp Office. It was a two-storey house built around a quadrangle, with a gateway rising to three storeys, and was one of the earliest examples of Renaissance architecture in England. In the end, only the western terrace was built and by 1801 the building was deemed to be complete, at a cost of £462,323. 1553 Aged 20, Princess Elizabeth moves to Somerset House; she lives there until 1558, when she’s crowned Queen Elizabeth I. [43], In the late 20th century the building began to be reinvigorated as a centre for the visual arts. Find all the transport options for your trip from Somerset House to Natural History Museum right here. [49] The Hackney Coach commissioners had been established on a permanent footing in 1694,[50] while the Board of Commissioners of Hawkers, Pedlars and Petty Chapmen dated from 1698;[51] the latter was abolished in 1810 and its work taken over by the Hackney Coach Office until its abolition in 1831, whereupon responsibility for licensing both of hackney carriages and of travelling traders passed to the Stamp Office. [32], A key reason for rebuilding Somerset House was to provide accommodation for a diverse variety of learned societies, public offices and naval administrators. [72] In July each year the "Summer series" of music events take place, which have included performances from artists such as Lily Allen. It was not until the 1950s that this damage to the South Wing was repaired. Tithe Commission Office. During the reign of King James I, the building became the London residence of his wife, Anne of Denmark, and was renamed Denmark House. The duke's royal nephew's half-sister, the future Queen Elizabeth I, lived there during the reign of her half-sister Queen Mary I (1553–58). Maintained by the National Trust, the house is open to the public from March to October each year, whilst the gardens, shop and café are open all year. [24], Magnificent as the new building was, it was something short of what Chambers had intended, for he had planned for an additional terrace of houses to the east, as well as to the west of the quadrangle; work had stopped short, however, cost being the inhibiting factor. [27], Inside, most of the offices were plain and business-like, but in the North Wing the formal rooms and public spaces of the learned societies were enriched with painted ceilings (by Cipriani, Benjamin West, Angelica Kauffman, J. F. Rigaud, Charles Catton and Joshua Reynolds), ornamental plasterwork (by Thomas Collins and Thomas Clerk) and casts of classical sculptures. selon les recommandations des projets correspondants. [67], The main courtyard, which had been used as a civil-service car park, and the main terrace overlooking the Thames were refurbished and opened to the public, these alterations being overseen by the conservation architects Donald Insall & Associates. This is excellent. She was living at Hatfield at the time of her proclamation and she held her first council there three days later. The Conference was the subject of an oil-on-canvas painting depicting the 11 representatives of the governments of England, Spain and the Spanish Netherlands, seated around a conference table, probably in Old Somerset House. [26] The footprint of the building was that of the old palace, ranging from its gateway block in the Strand across what was originally a gently sloping site down to the river. He skillfully recreated the Nelson Room and rebuilt the Nelson Stair. Les ailes nord et sud, de style victorien, ont été ajoutées plus tardivement. We working with @SomersetHouse on an exciting interactive art project focused on Black heritage and history. The terms were better received in Spain than in England, as they were seen there to let down the Netherlands, a well-regarded ally. For more information, visit the Somerset House website. There is also the Kings College law department. Winter Domes at Somerset House. By an earlier Act of Parliament, it had been placed in trust for the use of Queen Charlotte in the event that her husband King George III predeceased her. [39] Nevertheless, the move was completed by 1873, and the expanding Inland Revenue immediately took over the vacated space in Somerset House. Somerset House est un grand bâtiment néoclassique situé directement à l'est de Waterloo Bridge dans le centre de Londres. [12] This was in the care of the Capuchin Order and was on a site to the southwest of the Great Court. [7] The process of completion and improvement was slow and costly. The Georgian quadrangle, which was built on the site of a Tudor palace belonging to the Duke of Somerset, was designed by Sir William Chambers in 1776. Gallery & exhibition spaces. [24] The Admiralty Museum (a precursor to the National Maritime Museum) was also accommodated there, in the central room above the south portico. Elle a le N°26[4]. [26] As well as providing office space and accommodation, Somerset House was the place where examinations for promotion to the rank of lieutenant took place, sat by several hundred midshipmen each year. [57] The Surveyor of Crown Lands also had his office here until the early 19th century. [61], In 1891 a headquarters building was constructed in the West Court (between the West Wing and the New Wing) for the Civil Service Rifles, a Rifle Volunteer Corps. Government departments and the learned societies were huddled away in small old buildings all over the city. After the Excise Office had been merged with the Office of Stamps and Taxes to form the Inland Revenue, the latter took over the laboratory; by 1858 it was reestablished in Somerset House as the Inland Revenue Laboratory (with Phillips remaining in charge). Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Although Somerset House has now been transformed into one of London’s cultural platforms for art, when civil registration began in 1837 it was used to issue birth certificates, marriage certificates and death certificates in England and Wales. Very entertaining and put the history of Somerset House into context. [44], Phillips retired as principal chemist in 1874. [24] So Sir William Chambers, Comptroller of the King's Works, (who had in any case been vying for the commission)[24] was appointed in his stead, at a salary of £2,000 per year. Construction: 1897-1898 Builder: Thomas Clarey Location: 352 Somerset Street West, Ottawa Somerset House anchors the southeast corner of Bank Street and Somerset Street West. [26], The North Wing, fronting the Strand, was the first part of the complex to be built; its design was based on Inigo Jones's drawings for the riverfront of the former palace. [87] Somerset House Courtyard was also used in the 2008 movie Last Chance Harvey, with Dustin Hoffman and Emma Thompson. This office held all birth, marriage and death certificates in England and Wales until 1970, when the Registry and its associated archives were moved to nearby St Catherine's House at Aldwych. In due course, the King outlived the Queen and the property (later known as Buckingham Palace) reverted "to the use of His Majesty, his heirs and successors". [19], The North Wing of Somerset House was initially fitted out to house the Royal Academy, the Royal Society and the Society of Antiquaries. Retrouvez SOMERSET HOUSE: FOUR HUNDRED YEARS OF HISTORY. [76], Somerset House is a popular filming location, with its exterior featuring in several big-budget Hollywood films. An engraving of the southern front of Somerset House and gardens, drawn by L. Knyff about 1720 and engraved by Sawyer Junior (WORK 30/269) Transcript The floating house, moored in front was a Coffee House, denominated the Folly, & was frequented by the wits and fashionables of the day, but it latterly became so common and notorious that the Magistrates abolished it. [29], From the beginning of the new Somerset House there was a fiscal presence in the shape of the Stamp Office and the Tax Office, the former occupying the eastern part of the South Wing from 1789 and the latter occupying part of the East Wing. It had started as basically a one-man operation by an employee of the Excise, George Phillips. Rome2rio is a door-to-door travel information and booking engine, helping you get to and from any location in the world. Designs were produced by Giovanni Cipriani and the sculptors included Joseph Wilton, Agostino Carlini, John Bacon, Joseph Nollekens, John Cheere and Giuseppe Ceracchi. Chambers died in 1796, whereupon James Wyatt took over as architect. Though the view from its terraced riverfront garden, open to the public, was painted twice on his London visit by Canaletto (looking up- and downriver), it was used for storage, as a residence for visiting overseas dignitaries and as a barracks for troops. Archives. Sep 15. We are not currently able to operate Winter Domes but very much hope to re-open at a later date. Between 1851 and 1856, this terrace was substantially expanded and remodelled to provide the Inland Revenue with an entire new wing of additional office accommodation. The Strand façade of Chambers' Somerset House and the church of St Mary-le-Strand, shown in a view of 1836. [26], Then, increasing demand for space led to another and last step. Posted by: knowledgeherald in Royals May 28, 2020 14 Views. Achetez neuf ou d'occasion Courtyard view of the East and South wings today. [7], Before it was finished, however, the Duke of Somerset was overthrown, attainted by Parliament and in 1552 was executed on Tower Hill. 08.00-19.00 daily. Throughout history, Somerset House has taken on many roles, including being home to the Royal Academy of Arts, the Royal Society, and the Society of Antiquaries. [12] A small cemetery was attached and some of the tombstones are still to be seen built into one of the walls of a passage under the present quadrangle. [52] The Signet Office was abolished in 1851 and the Privy Seal Office in 1884. To find out about the ‘Roman bath’, the old Somerset House feeder cistern, click here. Somerset House Studios Tours. [15] Use was still found for it however. Taunton, in west-central Somerset, is the county town (seat). Therefore, the 1775 act annulled this arrangement and instead provided for another property, Buckingham House, to be vested in trust for the Queen on the same terms. Designed in a Victorian Italianate style, the building is of solid red The Salt Office initially occupied rooms in the West Wing, alongside the naval offices, but it was abolished in 1798 (administration of the salt tax having been transferred to the Board of Excise). In 1997 the Somerset House Trust was established as a charity to maintain the building and develop it as a centre for arts and culture. [28] Meanwhile, work continued on the East and West Wings, which began to be occupied from 1788;[29] by 1790 the main quadrangle was complete. The building itself has been torn down, rebuilt and extended to form the beautiful icon we know today. Part of it served as an army headquarters, with General Fairfax (the Parliamentarians' commander-in-chief) being given official quarters there;[16] lodgings were also provided for certain other Parliamentarian notables. The Royal Academy took up residence first, in 1779, followed by the other two institutions the following year. Nearest station: Temple. Somerset, administrative, geographic, and historic county of southwestern England. [53], One of the first occupants of the building had been the Duchy of Cornwall Office. In the 16th century, the Strand, the north bank of the Thames between the City of London and the Palace of Westminster, was a favoured site for the mansions of bishops and aristocrats, who could commute from their own landing stages upriver to the court or downriver to the City and beyond. It is bordered to the northwest by the Bristol Channel, to the north by Gloucestershire, to the east by Wiltshire, to the southeast by Dorset, and to the southwest by Devon. Developing national pride found comparison with the capitals of continental Europe disquieting. Achetez neuf ou d'occasion [5] In 1539, Edward Seymour, 1st Earl of Hertford (died 1552), obtained a grant of land at "Chester Place, outside Temple Bar, London"[6] from his brother-in-law King Henry VIII. Excellent guide. All Somerset House records were based in London (Strand in Central London) and the current building dates back to the late 18th Century. [74] The largest tenant is King's College London, whose Cultural Institute, Executive Centre and Dickson Poon School of Law occupy the East Wing, which is adjacent to its historic College Building of 1831. The list of public offices mentioned in the act comprised "The Salt Office, The Stamp Office, The Tax Office, The Navy Office, The Navy Victualling Office, The Publick Lottery Office, The Hawkers and Pedlar Office, The Hackney Coach Office, The Surveyor General of the Crown Lands Office, The Auditors of the Imprest Office, The Pipe Office, The Office of the Duchy of Lancaster, The Office of the Duchy of Cornwall, The Office of Ordnance, The King's Bargemaster's House, The King's Bargehouses". [14], Royal occupation of Somerset House was interrupted by the Civil War, and in 1649 Parliament tried to sell it. Beaucoup de réalisateurs se sont emparés de ce lieu pour de petites ou grandes scènes de leurs films[5]. Le décor fermé et l'architecture victorienne du lieu en ont fait un décor de film très utilisé, de The Duchess à Goldeneye en passant par X-Men : Le Commencement, Love Actually ou encore Indiscret. The first institution to move in (in 1989) was the Courtauld Institute of Art, including the Courtauld Gallery, which has an important collection of old master and impressionist paintings. [75] For a time the Representative of Anguilla (the diplomatic mission of the British Overseas Territory of Anguilla) was accommodated in part of the West Wing. The Royal Academy occupied the western half of the wing and the Royal Society the eastern half; their main entrances faced each other across the central vestibule leading from the Strand to the courtyard, topped by busts (of Michelangelo and Isaac Newton respectively) which are still in place today. Se toimi 1800- ja 1900-luvuilla useiden valtion virastojen sijaintipaikkana ja muutettiin vuonna 2000 julkiseksi taidekeskukseksi. Somerset House – The History is a comprehensive guide to the fascinating story of our 18th century grade I listed building. [81] Elements of the 2008 film The Duchess, starring Keira Knightley and Ralph Fiennes, were filmed in October 2007. This brought to an end a 224-year association of the revenue services with Somerset House. Admission is free, but you’ll need to buy a ticket for some exhibitions and events. [19] During the 18th century, however, the building ceased its royal associations. It was also known as the Somerset House Laboratory. Souffrant de négligence, l'ensemble a commencé à être démoli en 1775. At the same time, the laboratory was amalgamated with a similar facility that had been established within HM Customs and it was renamed the Government Laboratory. Somerset House has evolved more than most buildings of its age. Its former accommodation was given over to a newly established Government School of Design (which was much later to become the Royal College of Art); it remained in the complex from 1837 until, in 1853, the Registry of Births, Marriages and Deaths needed to expand its office space and the School relocated to Marlborough House. The design influenced other great buildings: Charles Bulfinch's Massachusetts State House, begun in 1795, has been described as a work "frankly derivative" of Somerset House. As late as 1598 John Stow refers to it as "yet unfinished". Il donne directement sur le Strand, l'une des plus célèbres avenues de la capitale britannique. It was then used as an occasional residence by Catherine of Braganza, wife of King Charles II. They failed to find a buyer, although a sale of the contents realised the very considerable sum (for that time) of £118,000. We are looking for young creatives from underrepresented backgrounds who are interested in collaborating, creating, and producing here at Somerset House over the next year. [66], Still more windows were shattered and balustrades toppled, but the worst was over by the end of May 1941. [20], Somerset House was refurbished by Sir Christopher Wren in 1685. Somerset House – a slice of London’s history. [22] By virtue of the same act, Ely House in Holborn (which had itself been purchased just a few years earlier as a potential site for new public offices) was sold and the proceeds applied to the Somerset House project. It was accommodated in the East Wing along with the Tax Office and various Exchequer offices (including the Pipe Office, the Lord Treasurer's Remembrancer's Office and the Office of the Clerk of the Estreats). Sir Albert Richardson was appointed architect for the reconstruction. [24], In 1832 the Navy Board and its subsidiaries were abolished and their departments placed under the direct oversight of the Admiralty. The riverfront of Somerset House today, seen from the Victoria Embankment. James Bell was then the principal chemist of Somerset House Laboratory until his retirement in 1894. [45] He was replaced as principal chemist by Sir Thomas Edward Thorpe. Thus the various Navy offices occupied around a third of Chambers' completed building. ", "The Somerset House Conference, 19 August 1604", "The Secret Gravestones Beneath Somerset House", "House of Lords Journal Volume 34: May 1775, 21–31", "Design, 1778-80, Angelica Kauffman RA (1741 - 1807)", "The Strand Block of Somerset House, 1780–1836: Part II", "Somerset House: Court of Probate. The Courtauld occupies the North Wing. A Somerset house that is reported to have a special connection to the famous novel Robinson Crusoe is for sale - for over a million pounds.. Old … Somerset House, The Strand, Aldwych, WC2R 1LA. [73], Somerset House is now residence to more than a hundred tenants, comprising a large and diverse collection of creative organisations and artists including the British Fashion Council, 7Wonder, Outset Contemporary Art Fund, Hofesh Shechter Company and the Royal Society of Literature. Le peintre paysagiste anglais John Constable la représente à son tour au XIXe siècle, vue du pont[3]. et des millions de livres en stock sur Amazon.fr. In 1897, Thorpe moved the Government Laboratory from Somerset House to a new building of his own design. Its management policy has been to rent out the upper floors at a commercial rate to "creative businesses", while devoting the ground floor to "public realm" activities. [71], The courtyard is also used as a concert venue. Bath BMD There are currently over 490,000 births, 188,000 marriages and 347,000 deaths available to search and view for free on Bath BMD (Births, Marriages, Deaths). We are unfortunately no longer able to open Dodge in January but very much hope to go ahead at a later date. Portail de l’architecture et de l’urbanisme, https://fr.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Somerset_House&oldid=177470848, Monument classé de Grade I dans la cité de Westminster, Page utilisant une adresse fournie par Wikidata, Catégorie Commons avec lien local différent sur Wikidata, Portail:Architecture et urbanisme/Articles liés, licence Creative Commons attribution, partage dans les mêmes conditions, comment citer les auteurs et mentionner la licence. [24] Even as late as 1819, decorative work to the exterior of the North Wing was still being completed. [9], On the 18 August O.S. [38] In addition, the terrace to the west of the quadrangle provided dwelling-houses for the Comptroller of the Navy, the Secretary to the Board and three Commissioners of the Navy, along with the Chairman, Secretary and two Commissioners of Victualling,[27] with the Treasurer of the Navy allotted the 'mansion' at the river end of the terrace (which included a coach house and stables for ten horses in the vaults under the terrace). For example, up until 1855 (when the relevant duty was abolished) every newspaper produced in the country had to be brought to Somerset House to be stamped. This provides a unique opportunity to create a new cultural hub for Londoners, as well as extending the College’s existing Strand Campus which has long been home to the most innovate teaching and research. Noté /5. [23], Initially a certain William Robinson, Secretary to the Board of Works, was commissioned to design and build the new Somerset House, but he died in 1775 shortly after being appointed. [62], By the start of the First World War the Civil Service Rifles, by then renamed the 15th (Prince of Wales' Own Civil Service Rifles) Battalion, The London Regiment,[63][64] had its own Morris tube firing range (where the calibre of the rifle is reduced for indoor operation by a use of a tube) fitted with vanishing and running targets at Somerset House. Grants from the Heritage Lottery Fund financed the conversion of the South Wing between 1999 and 2003: a visitor centre featuring audio-visual displays on the history of the building, the gilded state barge of the Lord Mayor of the City of London and a shop and café were opened, overlooking the river. COMUZI @comuzi_lab. Courtyard view of the South and West wings in 1864. [7][8] Somerset Place, as the building was referred to, then came into the possession of the Crown. In 1868, the Admiralty took the decision to move all their staff from Somerset House to Whitehall; this necessitated reconfiguring what had been a set of residences there pertaining to the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty into office accommodation. Their administrative staff remained in Somerset House, but communications with the Admiralty (based a mile away in Whitehall) were problematic as what became known as the "civil departments" of the Admiralty guarded their independence. [70] At other times, an array of fountains display 55 vertical jets of water rising to random heights. [82] Somerset House was also used as a filming location in several Sherlock Holmes films, including 1970's The Private Life of Sherlock Holmes and, more recently, Sherlock Holmes (2009), starring Jude Law and Robert Downey, Jr., directed by Guy Ritchie. Various divisions and directorates of HMRC continued to occupy the East Wing until 2009, the West Wing until 2011 and the New Wing until March 2013, by which time all staff had been relocated (with most moving across the street to the southwest wing of Bush House). Elevation of New Principal Registry", "Vehicle registration and licensing records", "Records of the Keeper of the Privy Seal", "London: Somerset House, Lords Commissioners of the Treasury: designs for alterations to offices, 1795", "Office of the Duchy of Cornwall, Buckingham Gate, Pimlico, London", "Records of the Poor Law Commission, Poor Law Board and Poor Law Department of the Local Government Board", "Somerset House. It was in Somerset House that Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell's body lay in state after his death in 1658. Plans & Elevation Of the Proposed Additions", "Westminster City Council resolves to grant planning permission for Strand redevelopment", "Somerset House: West Court - Civil Service Volunteers Building", "15th (Prince of Wales' Own Civil Service Rifles) Battalion, The London Regiment", "Plan for the Reconstruction of the South Wing of Somerset House, London", "The Big Skate: outdoor ice rinks in London", "Restoration of a Grade I listed Building", "Goldeneye (1995): Wade's car breaks down", "Shanghai Knights (2003): Driving off with Charlie in tow", "Shanghai Knights (2003): Final goodbyes", "Duchess, The (2008): Devonshire House exterior", "Private Life Of Sherlock Holmes, The (1970): Diogenes Club exterior", "Sherlock Holmes (2009): Pentonville prison - Blackwood's cell", "Sleepy Hollow (1999): New York street scenes", "Dustin Hoffman and Emma Thompson filming on South Bank", "Gerard Butler spotted speeding down Strand in filming of action thriller", Hungerford Bridge and Golden Jubilee Bridges, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Somerset_House&oldid=998854459, Grade I listed buildings in the City of Westminster, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 7 January 2021, at 09:26. [27] Bacon oversaw production of the bronze group of statues (consisting of Neptune and George III) in the main courtyard, facing the main entrance from the Strand. The central Jacobean part of the house was built between 1600 and 1620, with the large central hall, kitchen and central bedrooms comprising the heart of the house. [25], Chambers' own influences stemmed from Palladianism, the principles of which were applied throughout Somerset House, inside and outside, both in its large-scale conception and in its small-scale details. It is not known who designed the building. Edmund Burkewas the leading proponent of the scheme for a "national building", and in 1775 Parliament passed an act for the purpose of, inter alia, "erecting and establishing Publick Offices in Som… Somerset House is an independent school which makes its own decisions regarding curriculum and learning, while taking cognisance of national and international trends in … Titus Oates made full use of this prejudice in the fabricated details of the Popish Plot and it was alleged that Sir Edmund Berry Godfrey, whose murder was one of the great mysteries of the age, had been killed in Somerset House before his body had been smuggled out and thrown into a ditch below Primrose Hill. Address: Montacute House, Montacute, Somerset TA15 6XP [5] When his nephew the young King Edward VI came to the throne in 1547, Seymour became Duke of Somerset and Lord Protector. De la grande salle pour ses cours de perspectives numérotées the worst was over by the other two the! 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