what was the corinthian war

Thucydides is mistaken in his famous assertion that "[w]hat made war inevitable was the growth of Athenian power and the fear which this caused in Sparta". Sparta eventually won the war, but only after the Persian had switched support from Athens to Sparta. Hecatomnus was appointed satrap of the new separate satrapy of Caria, perhaps in the mid-390s, as a counterpoise to Sparta. Agesilaus returned from Asia and fought two large-scale hoplite battles but could not force the Athenian general Iphicrates out of Corinth, where for several years he established himself with mercenaries and light-armed troops. The Corinthian War (395–387/6 bce) pitted Sparta against a coalition formed by Athens, Thebes, Argos, and Corinth, and took its name from the main area of military operations.The war originated in the dissatisfaction of Sparta's former allies during the Peloponnesian War with Sparta's taking advantage of the victory to her own exclusive benefit. In 392 the Spartans and some Corinthian allies captured the port of Lechaeum, but two years later the area of Leuchaeum was the site of a rare defeat for their hoplites, at the hands of lighter troops. The causes of the Corinthian War lie in the policies pursued by Sparta after its victory in 404. It was constructed at Halicarnassus, which, after a move from inland Mylasa, became the Hecatomnid capital, with palace and harbour built on monarchical lines that surely owed some inspiration to Dionysius of Sicily. Occasional adventures, such as Greek flirtation with the Revolt of the Satraps in the 360s, do not seriously affect this generalization. Since the Corinthian war is the first attempt at achieving a new settlement in Greece after the Peloponnesian war and since it brought about new political alliances and the revival of old imperial rivalries, it is not only an episode in the continual warfare among the … Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. After the destruction of Plataea in 427, Thebes took over Plataea’s vote and some of its territory; that was one reason for Theban strength. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, https://www.britannica.com/event/Corinthian-War, ancient Greek civilization: The Corinthian War. Hellenization was well under way before he came. Consequently, it changed its support to Sparta. When the Phocians appealed to Sparta, Lysander (now back in qualified favour at Sparta) invaded Boeotia. The activities of those 4th-century satraps (and of dynasts without the satrapal title but recognized by Persia) are of great interest, though documented more by inscriptions and archaeology than by written sources. Initially, Lysander seems to have been at the back of this northward encroachment (good evidence connects him with Thrace and the Chalcidice). In an attempt to woo other Greek cities and remove Athens Ionian allies, king Agesilaus of Sparta invaded Anatolia. Not being a major Mycenaean centre, Corinth lacks the mythological heritage of other Greek city-states. Angered by Sparta's tyrannical overlordship in Greece after the Peloponnesian War, several Greek states took advantage of Sparta's involvement in … Corinthian League (338 BCE): confederation of Greek cities, meant by king Philip of Macedonia to control Greece, and used by Alexander the Great in his war against the Achaemenid Empire. This drove the two cities to side with Athens , a city that was once the enemy of both. A large curved projection protected the nape of the neck. Sparta once found allies in Thebes and Corinth, but in the end, the cities could not abide by its imperialist policy. Ismenias was a Theban politician during the 4th century BC, who was the leader of a anti-Spartan party. The ensuing Peace of Antalcidas, or King’s Peace, of 386 specified that Asia, including Cyprus and Clazomenae, was to belong to the king of Persia. In fact, the winning side was the old combination that had proved victorious in the Peloponnesian War. The Corinthian helmet originated in ancient Greece and took its name from the city-state of Corinth.It was a helmet made of bronze which in its later styles covered the entire head and neck, with slits for the eyes and mouth. The Corinthian church was unusually diverse, and the ethic of appropriate relating that Paul taught wasn’t strong enough to overcome the tensions that these differences were bringing into the community. By Graham Wrightson. The Corinthian War and Iphicrates book. By 395 then, all Sparta’s enemies were ready and willing for war. Corinthian War (395 B.C.–86 B.C. Hellenization at the cultural level and tolerance of the social structures of small local places with no military muscle did not necessarily entail favouring the political interests of the Greek states to the west. It was in fact a peninsular site. In the years immediately following 392, the Athenians made such nuisances of themselves in Anatolia under Thrasybulus, who revived a number of 5th-century Athenian imperial institutions, that Persia—which was anxious to end rebellions not just in Egypt but also in Cyprus—eventually realized where its true interest lay. In 401 Lysander’s old friend Cyrus—the younger brother of the new Persian king, Artaxerxes II (reigned 404–359)—made an attempt on the throne with Spartan help. It is therefore not surprising that in 397 the Persians began to build a new fleet to deal with the menace of a Spartan army in Asia. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Overall, a group of four city-states decided to build a coalition (Thebes, Corinth, Athens, and Argos) so that they could defeat Sparta. From the point of view of Thebes and Corinth, there was a risk of encirclement by Sparta. Cyprus was included because Athens had been helping the rebel Cypriot king, Evagoras.) The war was fought on two fronts, on land near Corinth and Thebes and at sea in the Aegean. The precipitating cause was a quarrel between Locris, abetted by Boeotia, and Phocis. In central Greece in the early 390s, the Spartans reinforced their position at Heraclea in Trachis and had a garrison at Thessalian Pharsalus. As … For example, in a text from Labranda, a semi-Greek community called the Plataseis confers tax privileges and citizenship on a man from Cos; the grant is ratified by yet another Hecatomnid brother and satrap, Pixodarus. Sparta’s involvement in Persian civil wars in Asia Minor under Agesilaus II (ruled 399–360) and the subsequent Spartan occupation…, …(394 bc), battle in the Corinthian War (395–387 bc) in which a coalition of Greek city-states sought to destroy the ascendancy of Sparta after its victory in the Peloponnesian War. The Spartan king scored a minor victory over the…, In 392, during the Corinthian War, he went with three colleagues to negotiate peace with Sparta, but Athens rejected the terms and exiled the ambassadors. Another factor making for specifically Corinthian resentment may have been Sparta’s interference in Corinth’s colony, Syracuse. Thibron’s expedition was followed by that of Dercyllidas (399–397), but the most ambitious of all was led by the new Spartan king, Agesilaus, in 396. The other Greek cities great and small, including the other islands, were to be autonomous, but Athens was allowed to keep Lemnos, Imbros, and Scyros, three long-standing cleruchies. On…, …Corinth engaged Sparta in the Corinthian War (395–387). It became famous, however, because a participant, first as a soldier of fortune and after Cyrus’s death as a commander of the Greek force, was Xenophon, who made these exploits the basis of his Anabasis or “Upcountry March” of the Ten Thousand. … A sizable force was sent out from Sparta to challenge this force. It is the post revisionist view that it was a combination of both these that caused the Corinthian War. Conon certainly financed and perhaps organized the establishment of an Athenian mercenary force at Corinth, the first commander of which was Iphicrates. On land, the Spartans achieved several early successes in major battles, but were unable to capitalize on their advantage, and the fighting soon became stalemated. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, Political and legal sources of resentment, Athenian aggression outside the Peloponnese, The effect of the Persian Wars on philosophy, The conquest of Bactria and the Indus valley. They also illustrate the range of the family’s diplomatic contacts (for instance with faraway Crete) and their relations with the local communities, both Greek and native Carian. The premise that started the Corinthian War was a plan crafted by Ismenias. Out of combat, a Greek hoplite would wear the helmet tipped upward for comfort. The Spartans’ defeat of the troops from Thebes, Corinth, Athens, and Argos temporarily broke the force of the coalition. Amongst the most influential people in Sparta were Lysander, the adm… The Corinthian war against the Corcyrans was the largest naval battle between Greek city states until that time. The same is true of Sparta’s position under the peace, which was certainly much strengthened. The same conclusion is compelled by such dynastic (rather than strictly satrapal) edifices as the Nereid monument from Lycia (early 4th century) or the caryatids (roof-carrying female sculpted statues) from Lycian Limyra, a place ruled by a Hellenizing prince significantly named Pericles. Those feelings, along with the straightforward hankering at all social levels for the benefits of empire (a strong and well-attested motive that should be emphasized), were to be exploited by Thebans at Athens in 395 in their appeal to Athens to join in war against Sparta. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Nor was Athens yet in a mood for peace. The Corinthian War (395-386 BC) saw the Spartans, with eventual Persian aid, defeat an alliance of Thebes, Corinth, Argos and Athens and apparently remain the dominant power on mainland Greece. Three of his speeches survive: “On His Return”; “On the Mysteries,” his defense…, In 390, during the Corinthian War (Sparta versus Athens and her allies, 395–387), he commanded the heavy infantry that helped Iphicrates annihilate a Spartan regiment near Corinth. Information and translations of corinthian war in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. It was also the latest, not arriving at full development until the middle of the 4th cent. This war, called the Corinthian War (395–386) because much of it took place on Corinthian territory, was fought against Sparta by a coalition of Athens (with help from Persia), Boeotia, Corinth, and Argos. This was an outright betrayal of Emperor Artaxerxes. The expedition was a military failure; Cyrus was killed at the Battle of Cunaxa north of Babylon, and the Greek army had to be extricated and brought back to the Black Sea region. Sparta treated allies poorly and meddled in their affairs which caused anti-Spartans parties. Unlike Thebes, Corinth had emerged badly from the Peloponnesian War; its prosperous middle class had been eroded, and that made possible a remarkable turn of events: Corinth and democratic Argos, in a unique if short-lived political experiment, became fully merged at this time. Inscriptions placed in aggressive prominence on fine temples and templelike buildings at Labranda (and published in 1972) attest the wealth and the Hellenizing intentions of the rulers (the dedicants include Mausolus’s brother and eventual successor Idrieus). He ruled his pocket principality under light Persian authority until 377 and made dedications in Greek script at a number of local sites and sanctuaries. For instance, the Athenian navy was perhaps ordered to be broken up and the gates on the Piraeus removed, but these may have been consequences, not clauses, of the peace. Sisyphus was succeeded by his son Glaucus and his grandson Bellerophon, whose winged-horse Pegasus became a symbol of the city and … ), armed conflict between Corinth, Argos, Thebes, and Athens on one side and Sparta on the other. In 404 BCE, Sparta emerged victorious, claiming Athens' title of hegemon, the most powerful of the Greek city-states. Aided by the Athenians and the Egyptians, Evagoras extended his rule over the…, …his peltasts skillfully in the Corinthian War (395–387), nearly annihilating a battalion of Spartan hoplites near Corinth in 390. Corinth in the Middle of Greece Anatolia now became the political property of Persia and the satraps for the 50 years until Alexander’s arrival. Corinthian order, most ornate of the classic orders of architecture. In fact, Sparta was not even secure in its local dominance in Laconia and Messenia: the old helot problem recurred in 399 with the attempted revolt of Cinadon, already noted in its helot aspect. Persian participation on Athens’s side needs a special explanation, which is to be found in two ultimately related sets of operations conducted by Sparta east of the Aegean. From 395 BC to 387 BC, the Corinthian War involved a handful of ancient Greek city-states, including the mighty Spartans and the popular Athenians. Cyrus had been given help in the early stages of his revolt by some Greek cities of Anatolia. In fact, Mausolus, despite a brief and cautious insurrectionary moment in the late 360s when he joined the great Revolt of the Satraps (a movement in which there was also tentative Athenian and Spartan participation), is found actively damaging Athenian interest in the Aegean in the 350s. The Greek Corinthian order was named for the city of Corinth and was first used in Greek architecture around 425 BC. Corinthian War (395 BC–86 BC), armed conflict between Corinth, Argos, Thebes, and Athens on one side and Sparta on the other. (Ionian Clazomenae was included because Athens had interfered there and also because its status—whether it was an island or part of the mainland—was unclear. One difference after 386 lay in the status of possessions up to then held by various Greek islands on the mainland of Anatolia. Modern argument centres on the question of whether there were additional clauses, not supplied by the main account (that of Xenophon). The forces met at the dry bed of the Nemea River, in Corinthian territory, where the Spartans won a decisive victory. It was this as much as anything that made Sparta offer peace terms in 392, which would have meant the final abandoning of its claims to Asia. The most energetic of them was the Hecatomnid dynasty of Caria, which took its name from Hecatomnus, the son of Hyssaldomus. Until the first Spartan invasion of the Argolid in 391, the land war was confined to the neighbourhood of Corinth, which served as a base for the allies, while the Spartans operated from Sicyon. Another lay in the depredations that the Thebans had been able to carry out in Attica as a result of the occupation of Decelea. These anti-Spartan parties become aggressive around this time. After the war he served the Persians as a mercenary commander, then returned to Athens. After a brief engagement between Thebes and Phocis, in which Thebes was victorious, the allies gathered a large army at Corinth. Yet because that was always a direction in which Sparta expanded if given the chance, Sparta did not pull out of central Greece during Lysander’s temporary eclipse after 403. In works attributed to Homer, you may find Corinth referred to as Ephyre. What does corinthian war mean? BC The oldest known example, however, is found in the temple of Apollo at Bassae (c.420 BC). In Greece, Sparta’s supremacy looked as militarily imposing as in 404, though with the abandonment of Asia its moral authority was much weakened. In 386, however, the political dividing line between Greek and Persian interests looked relatively clean, although it was usually with the help of Greek mercenaries that over the next decades Persia made its series of attempts on the recovery of Egypt, the immediate task in the sequel to the King’s Peace. And a remarkable trilingual inscription in Lycian, Greek, and Aramaic (a Semitic script used for convenience in many parts of the Persian empire), found in 1973, proves the family’s interests to have spread eastward into Lycia; the text illustrates the cultural, social, and religious heterogeneity of southwestern Anatolia in the period before Alexander’s arrival. In the 5th century BCE, Athens united the city-states in order to fight Persian invasions and ended up creating an Athenian empire. In this respect, Paul’s greatest missionary success created his greatest challenges. Argos’s merger with Corinth was cancelled, and, more important (in view of the relative power of the states concerned), Thebes had to relinquish the control of Boeotia that it had been exercising in an unrecognized but progressively real way since 446. The Corinthian War was an ancient Greek conflict lasting from 395 BC until 387 BC, pitting Sparta against a coalition of four allied states; Thebes, Athens, Corinth, and Argos; which were initially backed by Persia.The immediate cause of the war was a local conflict in northwest Greece in which both Thebes and Sparta intervened. Nevertheless, the mythical founder of the city was believed to have been King Sisyphus, famed for his punishment in Hades where he was made to forever roll a large boulder up a hill. At the least (and Xenophon, a great admirer of the Spartan king, attributes to him some very grand ideas indeed) Agesilaus seems to have wanted to establish a zone of rebel satraps in western Anatolia. A little farther away, Sparta’s former Peloponnesian and extra-Peloponnesian allies were unhappy with what they saw as alarming extensions of Spartan territorial interests, though in fact some of these were very traditional. The Mausoleum itself, a creation of Greek artists and sculptors but with some barbarian features, has long been known from surviving sculptural fragments and from Greek and Latin literary descriptions. Argos, for its part, never needed much excuse to act against Sparta. When Agesilaus prepared to leave for Anatolia, he tried to sacrifice at Aulis “like Agamemnon” before the Trojan War; but the Boeotian federal magistrates stopped him. In fact, the winning side was the old combination that had proved victorious in the Peloponnesian War. Agesilaus was recalled to fight in Greece (394), but he had been unable to prevent the formation of the huge Persian fleet that, after his departure, overwhelmingly defeated the Spartan navy at Cnidus. He participated, along with the Persian fleet, in the naval victory over Sparta off Cnidus (394), but from 391 Evagoras and the Persians were virtually at war. Ismenias wanted the Spartans to start the war as it would limit the support from Lacedaemonian allies. The war might well have ended at this point, especially since Sparta faced a renewed helot threat as a result of the occupation by Pharnabazus and Conon of the island of Cythera. Book Combined Arms Warfare in Ancient Greece. The Greece that Agesilaus had left behind was uneasy under its new Spartan masters, despite the glory of Sparta’s victory over the Athenian fleet at Aegospotami (405), duly commemorated at Delphi, and the personal prestige of Lysander, who may even have received at this time some kind of cult at Samos (though perhaps only after his death in 395). , bronze, Greek, c. 600–575 most energetic of them was the leader of a party. A risk of encirclement by Sparta information from Encyclopaedia Britannica of the Corinthian War lie in the century... At the dry bed of the troops from Thebes, Corinth lacks the mythological heritage of other Greek cities remove. 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