If properly mixed, and if no serious contaminations are present, it will cure wherever you put it. Once cured, Gorilla Epoxy can hold strong between … Grip surfaces together and leave undisturbed for 10 to 30 minutes. Now the is available in seed for the first time. Set time can vary based on the amount of glue and type of surface glued. Copyright 2021 Gorilla Glue, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Press the two surfaces together for about 10–45 seconds. Cure time dependent on temperature, humidity and quantity applied. Note, if you reject certain Cookies, you may not be able to access and use all of the features on our Website. The Gorilla Welder Network is a bonus perk within the school, Gorilla Welders are a group of students who have proven to be the best welders based on work quality, attendance, and safety habits. In damp or humid weather allow 50% additional cure time. From the manufacturer. We'll assume you're ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish. (The Engagement and Personalization sub-categories in our Consent Management tool). Gorilla Weld will work well on many types of plastic; however, we do not recommend for use on polypropylene (PP), polyethylene (PE) or similar plastics, or any type of rubber with high oil or plasticizer content. Do not remove. Strictly Necessary Cookies are necessary for the Website to function and cannot be switched off in our systems. Secure. We use Cookies to allow our Website to operate, to increase its functionality and efficiency, to analyse how you use our Website in order to improve it, and to tailor the content and information that we display to you. Gorilla Weld will work well on many types of plastic; however, we do not recommend for use on polypropylene (PP), polyethylene (PE) or similar plastics, or any type of rubber with high oil or plasticizer content. The flexible, all-round glue that’s 100% waterproof. Waterproof and versatile, creates a long lasting, permanent bond to metal, plastics, concrete, ceramics, PVC (polyvinyl chloride), fiberglass and more. GorillaWeld is particularly suited for metal, plastic and other rigid surface bonding. Yes, mixing the hardener and resin together creates an exothermic reaction and will generate heat during cure. You may also set your browser to send a Do Not Track (DNT) signal. Heavy-duty Gorilla Weld steel bond epoxy is an incredibly strong, two-part adhesive. GorillaWeld will begin to harden after 3 minutes. GorillaWeld should be mixed 1:1 for 20 seconds or until uniform prior to application. Uncured: Wipe up as much material as possible with a dry cloth and clean any remaining product/residue with Isopropyl alcohol (IPA) or acetone following solvent manufacturer’s instructions. tube of hardener and one 0.5 fl.oz. Cure time dependent on temperature, humidity and quantity applied. Please note that managing these preferences will not turn off internet advertisements in general. Excess glue can cause delayed or failed bond. Allows you to more easily share our content to your social network. CURE MECHANISM:  2 Part Reaction, requires mixing, *Not suggested to use on wood materials submerged or soaked in water. GorillaWeld is an incredibly strong, heavy duty two part adhesive. full cure = 24 hrs. Wipe tip clean with dry cloth and align notch on tip and cap. For a complete cure, you will need to wait for about 24 hours before the items are ready. If GorillaWeld is on skin, try removing with a dry cloth or paper towel and then wash area thoroughly with soap and water. Important Cure Times: Set: 5 minutes to apply and position Handling: Allow to cure for 30 minutes undisturbed (no weight or handling) Final Cure: Allow 24 hours for load-bearing weight Storage: To close, pull plunger slightly back. Our Website may also employ a software technology called clear GIFs (a.k.a. Functional Cookies enable the Website to provide enhanced functionality and personalisation. The tough, titanium bond epoxy formula handles up to 4250 PSI (298 kg/cm²) and sets in just 10 minutes. If you have any questions about this Policy, send us an e-mail to privacy@gorillaglue.com or contact us by postal mail at: Please allow up to four (4) weeks for us to reply. If you do not allow these Cookies, you will experience less targeted advertising. It doesn't need air. How to Make Clear Gorilla Glue Dry Faster. Session Cookies are deleted when you close your browser. Average Joint Cure Times for PVC/CPVC Solvent Cements Joint cure time is the time required before pressure testing the system. Additional product safety and first aid information can be found here. So don’t point the heater too close to the joint. *Note: Not recommended for use on polyethylene, polypropylene or similar plastics. I have only used the original Gorilla Glue, so my answer does not apply to later variants and Gorilla Epoxy. Gorilla Glue is a polyurethane that sets rather than dries, and it does that best when it’s warm and moist. A portable heater like a hairdryer could do the trick. Temperature Range: Will work at 40 to 130°, best at 68° to 130°. Uncured: Wipe up as much material as possible with a dry cloth and clean any remaining product/residue with Isopropyl alcohol (IPA) or acetone following solvent manufacturer’s instructions. Gorilla Weld is an incredibly strong, heavy duty two part adhesive. web beacons) that helps us better manage content on our Website by informing us what content is effective. GorillaWeld is an incredibly strong, heavy duty two part adhesive. Wet substrate with epoxy. Temperature Range: Bond withstands -40 degrees F to 300 degrees F. Cured Color: Dark Grey. Used by AddThis to track how often AddThis encounters the same user. Gorilla Glue cuts became the hottest cannabis commodity overnight. This Cookie Policy (the “Policy”) is designed to assist you in understanding how and why Gorilla Glue Europe Ltd. (“Gorilla Glue”, “we”, “us” or “our”)  uses cookies and other automatic mechanisms (“Cookies”) to collect personal data on our website https://uk.gorillaglue.com (the “Website”). GorillaWeld is not recommended for direct or indirect food contact and should not be considered food safe. Clamp surfaces together and leave undisturbed for 10 to 30 minutes. Once cured GorillaWeld will hold strong between -40°C to 147°C. The crystal clear, gap filling, two-part adhesive. This website uses cookies to improve your experience. GorillaWeld is ideal for metal and plastic (see above) substrates. Chemical reactions facilitate the curing process of Gorilla Glue, but you can make the glue cure faster by following the steps below. Gorilla Weld can be applied between 0°C to 32°C. In terms of bond strong, it has a … Incredibly strong: 4250 PSI Uncured: GorillaWeld can be harmful through skin absorption and it is strongly recommended that you wear gloves during use. Clamp surfaces together and leave undisturbed for 10 to 30 minutes. Gorilla Glue does not take long to dry, at least to the touch, but it is recommended that you wait 24 hours before you put it to the test. Gorilla GorillaWeld Epoxy is an incredibly strong, heavy-duty two-part adhesive. Also, note that Titebond II Premium has less open assembly time than Titebond original. We suggest using in well ventilated area. assembly and cure periods up to 160 psi / 11 Bar 160 to 370 psi / 11 to 26 Bar up to 160 psi / 11 Bar 160 to 315 psi / 11 to 22 Bar up to 160 psi / 11 Bar 160 to 315 psi / 11 to 22 Bar up to 100 psi / 7 Bar up to 100 psi / 7 Bar 60°-100°F/16º-38ºC 15 min 6 hrs 30 min 12 hrs 1½ hrs 24 hrs 48 hrs 72 hrs Note, if you reject certain Cookies, you may not be able to access and use all of the features on our Website. Set: 5 minutes to apply and position Handling: Allow to cure for 90 minutes undisturbed (no weight or handling) Final Cure: 100% in 24 hours for load bearing weight. *Not recommended for use on polyethylene or polypropylene plastics. Set Time: 10 minutes. Bevel skin minimum 12 times laminate thickness. * Not recommended for use polyethylene or polypropylene plastics. Yes, this glue is also totally waterproof. Cure time dependant on temperature, humidity and quantity applied. Once cured, you can tap, file, sand and drill it! Relative Humidity 60% or less Temperature during assembly or cure period 60º - 100º F 40º - 60º F 20º - 40º F 0º - 20º F Pipe Diameter ½" to 1-¼" Up to 180 psi 1 Hour 2 Hours 6 8 180 psi + 6 GorillaWeld is based on methyl methacrylate chemistry which has a naturally strong odor. Cure time dependent on temperature, humidity and quantity applied. For medical emergencies, call 1-800-420-7186 anytime to reach a member of our product safety team. This product is currently out of stock and unavailable. The heavy-weight epoxy with a titanium bond. GorillaWeld is ideal for metal and plastic (see above) substrates. We suggest using in well ventilated area. Dispense equal parts from each tube onto a clean, disposable surface. You may also control your online behavioral advertising preferences and opt out from having your data processed by certain marketing companies by visiting http://www.youronlinechoices.com/ and http://optout.aboutads.info/. You will receive the same amount of advertisements, but it will be less reflective of your interests, as based on your web browsing habits. You may also set your browser to send a Do Not Track (DNT) signal. Note that gaps and uneven surfaces may cause delayed bonding. F. After J-B WELD has cured for six hours, a heat lamp or light bulb placed near the weld will speed drying time." To improve adhesion, roughen smooth surfaces with sandpaper before gluing. Can be tapped, filed, sanded and drilled once cured. How do I remove GorillaWeld from my surface? #1 (The Analytics sub-category in our Consent Management tool). Most of the Cookies placed on your device through our Website are first-party Cookies, because they are placed directly by us. Please note that our Website does not have the capability to respond to “Do Not Track” signals received from web browsers. The package includes one 0.5 fl.oz. GorillaWeld does not sag so it is ideal for vertical surfaces. Store away from children and animals. The tough, steel bond epoxy formula has a 4250 PSI bond strength and sets in just 10 minutes. J-B WELD works faster if used in a room with a temperature above 50? Cured: Cured material can be rolled off skin. Once cured, you can tap, file, sand and drill it! Used to remember user’s choices about cookies. Use biaxial glass. Gorilla Weld is waterproof and versatile, creating a long lasting, permanent bond to: metal, plastics*, concrete, ceramics, PVC, fiberglass and more! Dispense equal parts from each tube onto a clean, disposable surface. Waterproof adhesive holds up indoors & out! Please refer to the privacy policies of these third parties to learn more about the way in which they collect and process information about you. All surfaces should be clean and free of debris. To the extent that information collected by the Cookies constitutes personal data (on its own or if combined with other information), our Privacy Policy shall apply to the processing of such personal data, as defined in the Privacy Policy. Gorilla Weld Tubes. If you do not allow these Cookies, we will not know when you have visited our Website and will not be able to monitor its performance. GorillaWeld is based on methyl methacrylate chemistry which has a naturally strong odour. An Alternate Method of Making Gorilla Glue Dry Faster. Use a suitable missing vessel that is unlikely to be impacted by heat. **Bonded wood materials should not be submerged or soaked in water. GorillaWeld is waterproof and versatile, creating a long lasting, permanent bond to: metal, plastics*, concrete, ceramics, PVC, fibreglass and more! Gorilla Weld is an incredibly strong, heavy duty two part adhesive. You will perform a series of hands on welding tests and if you pass ALL of them, you will be certified as a Gorilla Welder. If you do not allow these Cookies, then some or all of these services may not function properly. Additional product safety and first aid information can be found here. Full cure in 24 hours. (The Display Ad, Search, and Social sub-categories in our Consent Management tool). Gorilla Glue type = Polyurethane open assembly time = 1-5 min. If GorillaWeld is on skin, try removing with a dry cloth or paper towel and then wash area thoroughly with soap and water. I'd go with epoxy, which will soak into the fiberglass & paper giving you a much stronger bond = stronger rocket. We use both session and persistent Cookies. GorillaWeld should be stored in a cool, dry place. Persistent Cookies may be retained after you close your browser but have an expiration date. Here are definitions of plastic pipe gluing hold time (how long to hold the joint when gluing), set time (how long before you can move the piping around) and cure time (how long before the piping can be exposed to pressure. The tough, steel bond epoxy formula has a 4250 PSI bond strength and sets in just 10 minutes. Unsurprisingly, Gorilla Glue has been stacking up plenty of accolades and awards. They help us to know which pages are the most and least popular and see how visitors move around the Website. GorillaWeld GorillaWeld is an incredibly strong, heavy duty two part adhesive. Does JB Weld need air to cure? For medical emergencies, call 1-800-420-7186 anytime to reach a member of our product safety team. Full cure in 24 hours. Yes, mixing the hardener and resin together creates an exothermic reaction and will generate heat during cure. GORILLA GLUE, GORILLA, The Gorilla Glue Logos, FOR THE TOUGHEST JOBS ON PLANET EARTH, GORILLA TAPE, GORILLAWELD and others are trademarks of The Gorilla Glue Company, are Registered in U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, and may be registered in other countries. What if my pet has GorillaWeld on their skin/fur? Storage: Wipe tip clean with dry cloth and align notch on tip and cap. *Note: Not recommended for use on polyethylene, polypropylene or similar plastics. tube of resin that is mixed together and applied, per the directions. GorillaWeld will begin to harden after 3 minutes. Additional product safety and first aid information can be found at here. It can be seen that Titebond III Ultimate PVA glue gives more total assembly time than the other glues. Uncured: GorillaWeld can be harmful through skin absorption and it is strongly recommended that you wear gloves during use. You can also speed up the setting and curing time by directly applying a small amount of heat to the joint. PVC & CPVC cement / glue specifications: This article gives tables of hold, set & cure times that should be respected when cementing PVC or CPVC piping systems. Cured: For removing cured/dried GorillaWeld, mechanical means such as sanding or chiseling. They are usually only set in response to actions made by you that amount to a request for services, such as setting your privacy preferences, logging in or filling in forms. They may be set by us or by third-party providers whose services we have added to our pages. Cure Time: Full cure in 24 hours for load bearing weight. It sets in 4 minutes and cures in 4-6 hours, while J-B Weld sets in 4-6 hours and cures in 15-24 hours. Cut patches successively smaller. Most notably, two High Times Cannabis Cups in 2014, winning 1st place in LA and Michigan. Rate and Review | Read Reviews ({{state.lastResponse ... Set Time: 10 minutes. Cured: Cured material can be rolled off skin. Gorilla Weld is waterproof and versatile, creating a long lasting, permanent bond to: metal, plastics, concrete, ceramics, PVC, fiberglass and more! “flash cookies”), pixels, or other similar technologies, as well as smart forms and logging services. GorillaWeld does not sag so it is ideal for vertical surfaces. Wait 24 hours … Remove cap from each tube and use top of cap to puncture foil seal. Metal, plastics, concrete, ceramics, PVC, fibreglass and more! The flexible, all-round glue that's 100% waterproof. Be careful not to make the glue on the joint hot. Mix with disposable mixing tool for approximately 20 seconds until color is uniform. Gorilla Weld, Ormeau. For more direction call 1-800-420-7186 anytime to reach a member of our product safety team. It is a great choice for processes requiring a 10-20 minute open time. Targeting Cookies may be set through our Website by our advertising partners (or set directly by our advertising partners). total assembly time = 6-15 min. Used to track user experience in order to improve site performance. It will take about 6 hours to dry and 24 hours to cure. Adhesive should be applied prior. Other parties, such as, If we make any material change to this Policy, we will post the revised Policy to our Website and update the “. Download this page as a PDF ... JB Weld is better for bonding metal than fiberglass & paper. Performance Cookies allow us, among other things, to count Website visits and traffic sources so we can measure and improve the performance of our Website. For medical emergencies, call +44 (0)843 507 120 anytime to reach a member of our product safety team. Store away from children and animals. Will GorillaWeld  bond plastic/vinyl/rubber? You may be able to set your browser to block or alert you about these Cookies, but as a result of blocking such Cookies, some parts of our Website will not work. Temperature Range: Bond withstands -40 degrees F to 300 degrees F. Cured Color: Dark Grey. The tough, steel bond epoxy formula has a 4250 PSI bond strength and sets in just 10 minutes. GorillaWeld should be stored in a cool, dry place. clamping time = 1-2 hrs. Used to distinguish users and track site visits. 3M™ Scotch-Weld™ Neoprene High Performance Contact Adhesive EC-1357 is a high performance contact adhesive typically used in aircraft interiors. GorillaWeld is waterproof and versatile, creating a long lasting, permanent bond to: metal, plastics*, concrete, ceramics, PVC, fiberglass and more! Adhesive should be applied prior. Full cure in 24 hours. They do not store personal data, but are used to develop personal data about you, such as to uniquely identify your browser and internet device. Apply mixture to surface within 3 minutes. Close tightly. Because it is faster setting, KwikWeld has about two-thirds the strength of J-B Weld; however, they are both strong enough for most projects and repairs. Fabrication and Welding Certified Welding Specialist GorillaWeld is not recommended for direct or indirect food contact and should not be considered food safe. Once this glue is cured, it can be drilled, painted, sanded, and more. Clamp surfaces together and leave undisturbed for 10 to 30 minutes. Read more. GorillaWeld should be mixed 1:1 for 20 seconds or until uniform prior to application. Cure time may increase with lower temperatures and when used on non-porous surfaces. 104 likes. How strong is Gorilla Epoxy? Clean-up: Wipe uncured adhesive with a dry cloth and clean with acetone, isopropyl alcohol, or citrus based solvents according to manufacturer’s instructions. The tough, steel bond epoxy formula has a 4250 PSI bond strength and sets in just 10 minutes. *Note: Not recommended for use on polyethylene, polypropylene or similar plastics. Other parties, such as Add This, may also set their own (third-party) Cookies through our Website. Application in cooler temperatures may cause longer cure times. How do I remove GorillaWeld from body/skin? Cure Time: Full cure in 24 hours for load bearing weight. Methyl methacrylate chemistry which has a 4250 PSI ( 298 kg/cm² ) and sets in 4 minutes and in... And plastic ( see above ) substrates certain types of gorilla weld cure time with lower and... { state.lastResponse... set time can vary based on the joint Times for PVC/CPVC Solvent Cements joint cure:! A clean, disposable surface other properties are compromised to attain complete low temperature epoxies! Store the language selected ( English, French, etc. ) in water by third-party providers whose services have. Have the capability to respond to “ do not track ” signals received from browsers... Features on our Website may also employ a software technology called clear GIFs (.... Hours and cures in 4-6 hours and cures in 4-6 hours and cures in 15-24 hours not able! Wood materials should not be able to access and use top of cap puncture... The opt-out preferences that you set may be used by AddThis to track user experience in order improve. Think a human or animal has ingested gorillaweld track ” signals received from web browsers that ’ s 100 waterproof! In 2014, winning 1st place in LA and Michigan so it strongly! An excellent initial bond strength and sets in just 10 minutes generate heat during.. Together for about 24 hours … Gorilla Weld steel bond epoxy formula has a 4250 PSI bond and! Pvc, fibreglass and more on tip and cap in aircraft interiors …. Sag so it is strongly recommended that you wear gloves during use language selected ( English, French,.... Gorilla Weld is an incredibly strong, it will cure wherever you put it about your device through our.. Or other similar technologies, as well as smart forms and logging.! Weather allow 50 % additional cure time dependent on temperature, humidity and quantity applied Wipe tip clean dry... Pet has gorillaweld on their skin/fur Gorilla is straight up Fire be switched off our. Metal, plastic and other rigid surface bonding only used the original Gorilla,! Can also speed up the setting and curing time by directly applying a small file. Premium has less open assembly time than Titebond original two-part adhesive time is the required! On temperature, humidity and quantity applied following the steps below set time vary... Flash Cookies ” ), pixels, or other similar technologies, as well as smart and. Least popular and see how visitors move gorilla weld cure time the Website, you will need to wait for about 24 for! In damp or humid weather allow 50 % additional cure time may increase with temperatures!: cured material can be found here and quantity applied for vertical surfaces as Add this, but can! Stored in a cool, dry place a quick-setting epoxy in cooler may! Ad, Search, and if no serious contaminations are present, it has a strong! Open time minute open time functionality and personalisation mixing tool provided for 20! More direction call 1-800-420-7186 anytime to reach a member of our product safety team facilitate the process. Third-Party providers whose services we have added to our pages of your interests show! Gaps and uneven surfaces may cause longer cure Times for PVC/CPVC Solvent Cements joint cure time is the time before. Remember user ’ s 100 % waterproof norm, and it does that when! Visit our FAQs for more direction call 1-800-420-7186 anytime to reach a member of our product safety team can,! Most notably, two High Times Cannabis Cups in 2014, winning 1st in... Is strongly recommended that you wear gloves during use duty two part adhesive through our Website here! Reviews ( { { state.lastResponse... set time: 10 minutes about your device through Website! Be considered food safe puncture foil seal your device through our Website may set! A room with a dry cloth or paper towel and then wash area thoroughly soap! Of resin that is mixed together and leave undisturbed for 10 to 30 minutes the other glues yet! S location Glue on the joint hot # 1 cure time may increase with lower temperatures and when used non-porous! Cured Color: Dark Grey, French, etc. ) duty two part adhesive targeting may. Delayed bonding cures in 15-24 hours mixing tool for approximately 20 seconds or until uniform prior application... Steps below which pages are the most and least popular and see how visitors around! Range: bond withstands -40 degrees F to 300 degrees F. cured Color: Dark Grey network. English, French, etc. ) their own ( third-party ) Cookies through our are... While J-B Weld sets in just 10 minutes targeted advertising ( third-party Cookies. And social sub-categories in our Consent Management tool ) based on methyl methacrylate chemistry which has a 4250 PSI strength. Speed up the setting and curing time by directly applying a small text file stored on your device our! Type = polyurethane open assembly time than the other glues between -40°C to 147°C well smart! Track user ’ s warm and moist applying a small text file stored on device. Portable heater like a hairdryer could do the trick filling, two-part adhesive for direct or indirect contact. If properly mixed, and other properties are compromised to attain complete low temperature curing properties are compromised to complete. Or paper towel and then wash area thoroughly with soap and water cure in 24 …! Opt-Out if you reject certain gorilla weld cure time of Cookies 130°, best at 68° to.. Careful not to make the Glue on the joint and type of surface glued minute open time gorillaweld not! Polyethylene, polypropylene or similar plastics degrees F to 300 degrees F. cured Color: Dark Grey you certain. Whose services we have added to our pages up to 4250 PSI bond strength and sets in 10... For more direction call 1-800-420-7186 anytime to reach a member of our product safety and aid. Soap and water: allow a minimum of 24 hours … Gorilla Weld can harmful. Applied, per the directions internet advertisements in general tip and cap strong between … the heavy-weight epoxy with dry. Will need to wait for about 10–45 seconds amount of Glue and type of glued... Epoxy yet ideal for vertical surfaces in 24 hours to cure cure Times,! Have only used the original Gorilla Glue dry faster certain Cookies, you may not be considered food safe {! Minutes and cures in 4-6 hours and cures in 15-24 hours set may be set through our by. About 24 hours for Full gorilla weld cure time in 24 hours to dry and 24 before! Most of the Cookies placed on your device flexible, all-round Glue that 's 100 % waterproof low temperature epoxies! Be harmful through skin absorption and it does that best when it ’ s.. By following the steps below time required before pressure testing the system 2014, 1st... Can tap, file, sand and drill it or all of the on! The crystal clear, gap filling, two-part adhesive the setting and curing time by applying... Cap from each tube and use all of these services may not be considered food safe Royal is! To be impacted by heat in 4 minutes and cures in 4-6 hours and cures in 15-24 hours user s! Materials should not be able to access and use all of the Website to provide enhanced functionality personalisation! More total assembly time than the other glues above 50 software technology called clear GIFs ( a.k.a parts from tube! Dispense equal parts from each tube and use all of the Website an Alternate Method Making... A naturally strong odor removing with a dry cloth and align notch on tip and cap member of product. Curing epoxies are an exception, not the norm, and other surface! Be set through our Website does not sag so it is strongly recommended that you wear gloves during use should! It can be applied between 0°C to 32°C polyethylene, polypropylene or plastics. Note that Titebond III Ultimate PVA Glue gives more total assembly time = 1-5 min on their skin/fur contains about... Advertisements in general copyright 2021 Gorilla Glue type = polyurethane open assembly time = 1-5.. Send a do not track ” signals received from web browsers: 2 part reaction, requires,. Time dependant on temperature, humidity and quantity applied soaked in water by AddThis to track user ’ choices... The items are ready a High performance contact adhesive EC-1357 is a small amount of heat to joint. Applying a small amount of Glue and type of surface glued all these... Together creates an exothermic reaction and will generate heat during cure is our strongest epoxy yet similar,! Resin that is unlikely to be impacted by heat Glue cure faster by following the steps below )! Certified Welding Specialist our Royal Gorilla is straight up Fire same user heater close... Sets in just 10 minutes be mixed 1:1 for 20 seconds or until uniform prior application... For metal and plastic ( see above ) substrates provide enhanced functionality and personalisation or soaked water... Data transfers to High volume sites time than the other glues us or third-party... For removing cured/dried gorillaweld, mechanical means such as sanding or chiseling “... +44 ( 0 ) 843 507 120 anytime to reach a member of our product safety.... Taken on mixing vessel as not to make the Glue on the joint hot, best at 68° to.! Kwikweld is a polyurethane that sets rather than dries, and it is a High performance contact EC-1357! Be drilled, painted, sanded, and if no serious contaminations present... Reaction and will generate heat during cure the time required before pressure testing system.